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A Model for the Future of Education

As kids worldwide head back to school, I’d like to share my thoughts on the future of education.随着世界各地的孩子们重返校园,我想分享我对教育未来的想法。

Bottom line, how we educate our kids needs to radically change given the massive potential of exponential tech (e.g. artificial intelligence and virtual reality).底线是,我们如何教育我们的孩子需要从根本上改变指数技术的巨大潜力(如人工智能和虚拟现实)。

Without question, the number one driver for education is inspiration. As such, if you have a kid age 8–18, you’ll want to get your hands on an incredibly inspirational novel written by my dear friend Ray Kurzweil called Danielle: Chronicles of a Superheroine.毫无疑问,教育的头号驱动力是灵感。因此,如果你有一个8-18岁的孩子,你会想要得到我亲爱的朋友雷·库兹韦尔写的一本非常鼓舞人心的小说,名叫《丹妮尔:超级女英雄编年史》。

Danielle offers boys and girls a role model of a young woman who uses smart technologies and super-intelligence to partner with her friends to solve some of the world’s greatest challenges. It’s perfect to inspire anyone to pursue their moonshot.丹妮尔为男孩和女孩们提供了一个年轻女性的榜样,她使用智能技术和超级智能与她的朋友合作,解决一些世界上最大的挑战。激励任何人去追求他们的登月计划是完美的。

Without further ado, let’s dive into the future of educating kids, and a summary of my white paper thoughts….闲话少说,让我们深入的未来教育孩子,和总结我的白皮书的想法....

Just last year, edtech (education technology) investments surpassed a record high of 9.5 billion USD—up 30 percent from the year before.就在去年,edtech(教育技术)投资超过了创纪录的95亿美元,比前年增加了30%。

Already valued at over half a billion USD, the AI in education market is set to surpass 6 billion USD by 2024.人工智能教育市场的估值已经超过5亿美元,到2024年将超过60亿美元。

And we’re now seeing countless new players enter the classroom, from a Soul Machines AI teacher specializing in energy use and sustainability to smart “lab schools” with personalized curricula.我们现在看到无数的新玩家进入教室,从专门研究能源使用和可持续发展的灵魂机器人工智能老师,到拥有个性化课程的智能“实验室学校”。

As my two boys enter 1st grade, I continue asking myself, given the fact that most elementary schools haven’t changed in many decades (perhaps a century), what do I want my kids to learn? How do I think about elementary school during an exponential era?当我的两个儿子进入一年级时,我继续问自己,鉴于大多数小学几十年(或许一个世纪)都没有改变,我希望我的孩子们学习什么?我如何看待指数时代的小学教育?

This post covers five subjects related to elementary school education:这篇文章涵盖了与小学教育相关的五个主题:

  1. Five Issues with Today’s Elementary Schools今天的小学有五个问题
  2. Five Guiding Principles for Future Education未来教育的五项指导原则
  3. An Elementary School Curriculum for the Future一门面向未来的小学课程
  4. Exponential Technologies in our Classroom我们教室里的指数技术
  5. Mindsets for the 21st Century21世纪的心态

Excuse the length of this post, but if you have kids, the details might be meaningful. If you don’t, then next week’s post will return to normal length and another fun subject.请原谅这篇文章的长度,但是如果你有孩子,细节可能会很有意义。如果你不这样做,那么下周的帖子将回复到正常长度和另一个有趣的主题。

Also, if you’d like to see my detailed education “white paper,” you can view or download it here.另外,如果你想看我详细的教育白皮书,你可以在这里查看或下载。

Let’s dive in…就让我们一探究竟吧……

Five Issues With Today’s Elementary Schools今天的小学有五个问题

There are probably lots of issues with today’s traditional elementary schools, but I’ll just choose a few that bother me most.今天的传统小学可能有很多问题,但我只选择一些最让我困扰的。

  1. Grading: In the traditional education system, you start at an “A,” and every time you get something wrong, your score gets lower and lower. At best it’s demotivating, and at worst it has nothing to do with the world you occupy as an adult. In the gaming world (e.g. Angry Birds), it’s just the opposite. You start with zero and every time you come up with something right, your score gets higher and higher.评分:在传统的教育体系中,你从A开始,每次出错,你的分数就会越来越低。往好了说,这是消极的,往坏了说,这与你作为一个成年人所生活的世界无关。在游戏世界(如《愤怒的小鸟》),情况正好相反。你从零开始,每次你想出正确的东西,你的分数就会越来越高。
  2. Sage on the Stage: Most classrooms have a teacher up in front of class lecturing to a classroom of students, half of whom are bored and half of whom are lost. The one-teacher-fits-all model comes from an era of scarcity where great teachers and schools were rare.讲台上的圣人:大多数教室里都有一位老师站在教室前面给一群学生讲课,其中一半学生感到无聊,另一半学生感到失落。“一刀切”的教学模式来自一个稀缺的时代,在这个时代,优秀的教师和学校非常罕见。
  3. Relevance: When I think back to elementary and secondary school, I realize how much of what I learned was never actually useful later in life, and how many of my critical lessons for success I had to pick up on my own (I don’t know about you, but I haven’t ever actually had to factor a polynomial in my adult life).相关性:当我回想小学和中学时,我意识到有多少我学到的是从来没有真正有用的在以后的生活中,有多少我的成功的关键教训我不得不拿起自己的(我不知道你,但是我没有曾经有系数多项式在我的成年生活)。
  4. Imagination, Coloring inside the Lines: Probably of greatest concern to me is the factory-worker, industrial-era origin of today’s schools. Programs are so structured with rote memorization that it squashes the originality from most children. I’m reminded that “the day before something is truly a breakthrough, it’s a crazy idea.” Where do we pursue crazy ideas in our schools? Where do we foster imagination?想象力,线条的颜色:也许我最关心的是工厂工人,工业时代的今天学校的起源。程序的结构是如此的死记硬背以至于它压制了大多数孩子的创意。我想起“某件事的前一天确实是一个突破,这是一个疯狂的想法。”“在我们的学校里,我们在哪里追求疯狂的想法?”我们在哪里培养想象力?
  5. Boring: If learning in school is a chore, boring, or emotionless, then the most important driver of human learning, passion, is disengaged. Having our children memorize facts and figures, sit passively in class, and take mundane standardized tests completely defeats the purpose.无聊:如果在学校学习是一件苦差事,无聊,或没有情感,那么人类学习的最重要的驱动力,激情,就会脱离。让我们的孩子死记硬背事实和数字,在课堂上被动地坐着,参加世俗的标准化考试,完全违背了我们的初衷。

An average of 7,200 students drop out of high school each day, totaling 1.3 million each year. This means only 69 percent of students who start high school finish four years later. And over 50 percent of these high school dropouts name boredom as the number one reason they left.平均每天有7200名学生辍学,每年总计130万。这意味着只有69%的高中学生在四年后完成学业。超过50%的高中辍学者认为无聊是他们离开的首要原因。

Five Guiding Principles for Future Education未来教育的五项指导原则

I imagine a relatively near-term future in which robotics and artificial intelligence will allow any of us, from ages 8 to 108, to easily and quickly find answers, create products, or accomplish tasks, all simply by expressing our desires.我设想,在一个相对近期的未来,机器人和人工智能将允许我们中的任何一个人,从8岁到108岁,轻松快速地找到答案,创造产品,或完成任务,所有这些仅仅通过表达我们的欲望。

From ‘mind to manufactured in moments.’ In short, we’ll be able to do and create almost whatever we want.从思想到瞬间制造。简而言之,我们将能够做并创造几乎任何我们想要的东西。

In this future, what attributes will be most critical for our children to learn to become successful in their adult lives? What’s most important for educating our children today?在未来,对于我们的孩子来说,在他们成年后的生活中,哪些品质是最重要的?当今教育孩子最重要的是什么?

For me it’s about passion, curiosity, imagination, critical thinking, and grit.对我来说,它是关于激情、好奇、想象力、批判性思维和勇气。

  1. Passion: You’d be amazed at how many people don’t have a mission in life… A calling… something to jolt them out of bed every morning. The most valuable resource for humanity is the persistent and passionate human mind, so creating a future of passionate kids is so very important. For my 7-year-old boys, I want to support them in finding their passion or purpose… something that is uniquely theirs. In the same way that the Apollo program and Star Trek drove my early love for all things space, and that passion drove me to learn and do.激情:你会惊奇地发现,很多人的生活中没有使命,没有使命,没有每天早上从床上爬起来的东西。人类最宝贵的资源是人类的执着和激情,所以创造一个充满激情的孩子的未来是非常重要的。对于我7岁的儿子们,我想支持他们找到自己的激情或目标……这是他们独有的。就像阿波罗计划和《星际迷航》驱动了我对太空一切事物的早期热爱一样,这种激情驱使我去学习去做。
  2. Curiosity: Curiosity is something innate in kids, yet something lost by most adults during the course of their life. Why? In a world of Google, robots, and AI, raising a kid that is constantly asking questions and running “what if” experiments can be extremely valuable. In an age of machine learning, massive data, and a trillion sensors, it will be the quality of your questions that will be most important.好奇心:好奇心是孩子们与生俱来的东西,但大多数成年人在他们的一生中都失去了一些东西。为什么?在一个充斥着谷歌、机器人和人工智能的世界里,养育一个不断提出问题并进行“如果”实验的孩子是非常有价值的。在一个机器学习、海量数据和万亿个传感器的时代,问题的质量将是最重要的。
  3. Imagination: Entrepreneurs and visionaries imagine the world (and the future) they want to live in, and then they create it. Kids happen to be some of the most imaginative humans around… it’s critical that they know how important and liberating imagination can be.想象力:企业家和梦想家想象他们想要生活的世界(和未来),然后他们创造它。孩子们碰巧是世界上最富想象力的人之一,他们知道想象力的重要性和解放性是非常重要的。
  4. Critical Thinking: In a world flooded with often-conflicting ideas, baseless claims, misleading headlines, negative news, and misinformation, learning the skill of critical thinking helps find the signal in the noise. This principle is perhaps the most difficult to teach kids.批判性思维:在一个充斥着经常相互矛盾的观点、毫无根据的主张、误导性的标题、负面新闻和错误信息的世界里,学习批判性思维有助于在噪音中找到信号。这个原则也许是最难教孩子的。
  5. Grit/Persistence: Grit is defined as “passion and perseverance in pursuit of long-term goals,” and it has recently been widely acknowledged as one of the most important predictors of and contributors to success.毅力/毅力:毅力被定义为“追求长期目标的激情和毅力”,最近它被广泛认为是成功最重要的预测因素和贡献者之一。

Teaching your kids not to give up, to keep trying, and to keep trying new ideas for something that they are truly passionate about achieving is extremely critical. Much of my personal success has come from such stubbornness. I joke that both XPRIZE and the Zero Gravity Corporation were “overnight successes after 10 years of hard work.”教育你的孩子不要放弃,要不断尝试,要不断尝试他们真正热爱的东西,这是非常关键的。我个人的成功很大程度上来自于这种固执。我开玩笑说XPRIZE和Zero Gravity Corporation都是“经过10年的努力,一夜成名”。

So given those five basic principles, what would an elementary school curriculum look like? Let’s take a look…那么根据这五个基本原则,小学课程是什么样的呢?让我们看看……

An Elementary School Curriculum for the Future一门面向未来的小学课程

Over the last 30 years, I’ve had the pleasure of starting two universities, International Space University (1987) and Singularity University (2007). My favorite part of co-founding both institutions was designing and implementing the curriculum. Along those lines, the following is my first shot at the type of curriculum I’d love my own boys to be learning.在过去的30年里,我有幸创办了两所大学:国际空间大学(1987年)和奇点大学(2007年)。在共同创办这两所学校的过程中,我最喜欢的部分是设计和实施课程。沿着这些思路,下面是我第一次尝试我希望我的孩子们学习的课程类型。

I’d love your thoughts, I’ll be looking for them here.我喜欢你的想法,我会在这里寻找它们。

For the purpose of illustration, I’ll speak about ‘courses’ or ‘modules,’ but in reality these are just elements that would ultimately be woven together throughout the course of K-6 education.为了举例说明,我要讲的是“课程”或“模块”,但实际上这些元素最终会在K-6教育课程中交织在一起。

Module 1: Storytelling/Communications模块1:讲故事/通信

When I think about the skill that has served me best in life, it’s been my ability to present my ideas in the most compelling fashion possible, to get others onboard, and support birth and growth in an innovative direction. In my adult life, as an entrepreneur and a CEO, it’s been my ability to communicate clearly and tell compelling stories that has allowed me to create the future. I don’t think this lesson can start too early in life. So imagine a module, year after year, where our kids learn the art and practice of formulating and pitching their ideas. The best of oration and storytelling. Perhaps children in this class would watch TED presentations, or maybe they’d put together their own TEDx for kids. Ultimately, it’s about practice and getting comfortable with putting yourself and your ideas out there and overcoming any fears of public speaking.当我想到生活中最适合我的技能时,我的能力就是用最吸引人的方式来表达我的想法,让别人参与进来,并以创新的方向来支持出生和成长。在我的成年生活中,作为一名企业家和首席执行官,我能够清晰地沟通,讲述引人入胜的故事,这让我能够创造未来。我认为这一课不能太早开始。所以想象一个模块,年复一年,在那里我们的孩子们学习艺术和实践来阐述他们的想法。最好的演讲和讲故事。也许这门课上的孩子会看TED演讲,或者他们会为孩子们准备他们自己的TEDx。归根结底,这是一种练习,让自己和自己的想法顺其自然,克服公众演讲的恐惧。

Module 2: Passions模块2:激情

A modern school should help our children find and explore their passion(s). Passion is the greatest gift of self-discovery. It is a source of interest and excitement, and is unique to each child.现代学校应该帮助我们的孩子发现和探索他们的激情。激情是自我发现的最好礼物。它是兴趣和兴奋的源泉,每个孩子都是独一无二的。

The key to finding passion is exposure. Allowing kids to experience as many adventures, careers, and passionate adults as possible. Historically, this was limited by the reality of geography and cost, implemented by having local moms and dads presenting in class about their careers. “Hi, I’m Alan, Billy’s dad, and I’m an accountant. Accountants are people who…”找到激情的关键是曝光。让孩子们体验尽可能多的冒险、职业和充满激情的成年人。从历史上看,这受到地理和成本的限制,因为当地的父母在课堂上讲述他们的职业。“嗨,我是艾伦,比利的爸爸,我是会计。会计是……

But in a world of YouTube and virtual reality, the ability for our children to explore 500 different possible careers or passions during their K-6 education becomes not only possible but compelling. I imagine a module where children share their newest passion each month, sharing videos (or VR experiences) and explaining what they love and what they’ve learned.但在YouTube和虚拟现实的世界里,我们的孩子在K-6教育期间探索500种不同职业或激情的能力不仅成为可能,而且令人信服。我想象一个模块,孩子们每个月分享他们最新的激情,分享视频(或VR体验),解释他们喜欢什么,他们学到了什么。

Module 3: Curiosity & Experimentation模块三:好奇与实验

Einstein famously said, “I have no special talent. I am only passionately curious.” Curiosity is innate in children, and many times lost later in life. Arguably, it can be said that curiosity is responsible for all major scientific and technological advances; it’s the desire of an individual to know the truth.爱因斯坦有句名言:“我没有特别的天赋。”我只是充满好奇。孩子们天生就有好奇心,很多时候在以后的生活中失去了好奇心。可以说,好奇心是所有重大科技进步的源泉;这是一个人想知道真相的愿望。

Coupled with curiosity is the process of experimentation and discovery. The process of asking questions, creating and testing a hypothesis, and repeated experimentation until the truth is found. As I’ve studied the most successful entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial companies, from Google and Amazon to Uber, their success is significantly due to their relentless use of experimentation to define their products and services.与好奇心相伴的是实验和发现的过程。提问的过程,创造和测试一个假设,反复试验直到发现真相。我研究过最成功的企业家和创业公司,从谷歌到亚马逊再到优步,他们的成功很大程度上是因为他们不断地用实验来定义他们的产品和服务。

Here I imagine a module which instills in children the importance of curiosity and gives them permission to say, “I don’t know, let’s find out.”在这里,我想象了一个模块,它向孩子们灌输好奇心的重要性,并允许他们说,“我不知道,让我们看看。”

Further, a monthly module that teaches children how to design and execute valid and meaningful experiments. Imagine children who learn the skill of asking a question, proposing a hypothesis, designing an experiment, gathering the data, and then reaching a conclusion.此外,每月模块,教孩子如何设计和执行有效和有意义的实验。想象一下,孩子们学会了提问,提出假设,设计实验,收集数据,然后得出结论。

Module 4: Persistence/Grit模块4:持久性/毅力

Doing anything big, bold, and significant in life is hard work. You can’t just give up when the going gets rough. The mindset of persistence, of grit, is a learned behavior I believe can be taught at an early age, especially when it’s tied to pursuing a child’s passion.在生活中做任何大的、大胆的和有意义的事情都是艰苦的工作。当生活变得艰难时,你不能放弃。坚持不懈、坚韧不拔的心态是一种后天习得的行为,我相信这种行为可以从小学到的,尤其是当它与追求孩子的激情联系在一起的时候。

I imagine a curriculum that, each week, studies the career of a great entrepreneur and highlights their story of persistence. It would highlight the individuals and companies that stuck with it, iterated, and ultimately succeeded.我想象一门课程,每周都要研究一位伟大企业家的职业生涯,并强调他们坚持不懈的故事。它将突出那些坚持使用它、迭代并最终成功的个人和公司。

Further, I imagine a module that combines persistence and experimentation in gameplay, such as that found in Dean Kamen’s FIRST LEGO league, where 4th graders (and up) research a real-world problem such as food safety, recycling, energy, and so on, and are challenged to develop a solution. They also must design, build, and program a robot using LEGO MINDSTORMS®, then compete on a tabletop playing field.此外,我想象一个模块,它结合了游戏玩法中的持久性和实验性,比如迪恩·卡门(Dean Kamen)的第一个乐高联盟(LEGO league),在那里4年级以上的学生研究现实世界中的问题,如食品安全、回收、能源等,并面临开发解决方案的挑战。他们还必须设计、构建和项目使用乐高头脑风暴机器人®,那么在一个桌面领域竞争。

Module 5: Technology Exposure模块5:技术公开

In a world of rapidly accelerating technology, understanding how technologies work, what they do, and their potential for benefiting society is, in my humble opinion, critical to a child’s future. Technology and coding (more on this below) are the new “lingua franca” of tomorrow.在一个科技飞速发展的世界里,理解科技是如何工作的,它们做什么,以及它们造福社会的潜力,在我看来,对一个孩子的未来至关重要。技术和编码(下文将详细介绍)是未来的新“通用语言”。

In this module, I imagine teaching (age appropriate) kids through play and demonstration. Giving them an overview of exponential technologies such as computation, sensors, networks, artificial intelligence, digital manufacturing, genetic engineering, augmented/virtual reality, and robotics, to name a few. This module is not about making a child an expert in any technology, it’s more about giving them the language of these new tools, and conceptually an overview of how they might use such a technology in the future. The goal here is to get them excited, give them demonstrations that make the concepts stick, and then to let their imaginations run.在这个模块中,我想通过游戏和示范来教(适合年龄的)孩子。给他们一个指数技术的概述,如计算,传感器,网络,人工智能,数字制造,基因工程,增强/虚拟现实,和机器人,举几个例子。这个模块不是要让孩子成为任何技术方面的专家,而是要让他们掌握这些新工具的语言,并从概念上概述他们将来可能如何使用这种技术。这里的目标是让他们兴奋,给他们演示,让他们的概念保持不变,然后让他们的想象力运行。

Module 6: Empathy模块六:同理心

Empathy, defined as “the ability to understand and share the feelings of another,” has been recognized as one of the most critical skills for our children today. And while there has been much written, and great practices for instilling this at home and in school, today’s new tools accelerate this.同理心,被定义为“理解和分享他人感受的能力”,被认为是当今孩子最重要的技能之一。虽然已经有很多书面的,在家庭和学校灌输这一思想的伟大实践,但是今天的新工具加速了这一进程。

Virtual reality isn’t just about video games anymore. Artists, activists, and journalists now see the technology’s potential to be an empathy engine, one that can shine spotlights on everything from the Ebola epidemic to what it’s like to live in Gaza. And Jeremy Bailenson has been at the vanguard of investigating VR’s power for good.虚拟现实不再只是电子游戏。艺术家、活动人士和记者现在看到了这项技术成为共鸣引擎的潜力,它可以让人们关注从埃博拉疫情到加沙生活方式的方方面面。Jeremy Bailenson一直都是研究VR力量的先锋。

For more than a decade, Bailenson’s lab at Stanford has been studying how VR can make us better people. Through the power of VR, volunteers at the lab have felt what it is like to be Superman (to see if it makes them more helpful), a cow (to reduce meat consumption), and even a coral (to learn about ocean acidification).十多年来,Bailenson在斯坦福的实验室一直在研究VR如何让我们成为更好的人。通过VR的力量,实验室的志愿者们已经感受到了成为超人(看看这是否会让他们更有帮助)、奶牛(减少肉类消费),甚至珊瑚(了解海洋酸化)的感觉。

Silly as they might seem, these sorts of VR scenarios could be more effective than the traditional public service ad at making people behave. Afterwards, they waste less paper. They save more money for retirement. They’re nicer to the people around them. And this could have consequences in terms of how we teach and train everyone from cliquey teenagers to high court judges.这些虚拟现实场景可能看起来很傻,但在让人们行为起来方面,它们可能比传统的公共服务广告更有效。之后,他们浪费更少的纸。他们为退休储蓄更多的钱。他们对周围的人更友好。这可能会对我们如何教育和培训从小集团青少年到高等法院法官的每个人产生影响。

Module 7: Ethics/Moral Dilemmas模块7:伦理/道德困境

Related to empathy, and equally important, is the goal of infusing kids with a moral compass. Over a year ago, I toured a special school created by Elon Musk (the Ad Astra school) for his five boys (age 9 to 14). One element that is persistent in that small school of under 40 kids is the conversation about ethics and morals, a conversation manifested by debating real-world scenarios that our kids may one day face.与同理心相关的,同样重要的是给孩子灌输道德指南针的目标。一年多以前,我参观了埃隆·马斯克(Elon Musk, Ad Astra school)为他的五个儿子(9岁到14岁)创办的一所特殊学校。在那所40岁以下的小学校里,有一个持续存在的元素就是关于道德和道德的对话,这种对话通过讨论我们的孩子将来可能面对的真实场景而表现出来。

Here’s an example of the sort of gameplay/roleplay that I heard about at Ad Astra, that might be implemented in a module on morals and ethics. Imagine a small town on a lake, in which the majority of the town is employed by a single factory. But that factory has been polluting the lake and killing all the life. What do you do? It’s posed that shutting down the factory would mean that everyone loses their jobs. On the other hand, keeping the factory open means the lake is destroyed and the lake dies. This kind of regular and routine conversation/gameplay allows the children to see the world in a critically important fashion.这是我在Ad Astra上听说的一种游戏玩法/角色扮演的例子,可能在道德和伦理模块中实现。想象一个湖上的小镇,小镇的大部分被一个工厂雇佣。但是那家工厂一直在污染这个湖,杀死所有的生命。你是做什么的?据说关闭工厂意味着每个人都会失业。另一方面,保持工厂开放意味着湖被毁,湖死了。这种定期和常规的对话/游戏玩法让孩子们以一种极其重要的方式看世界。

Module 8: The 3R Basics (Reading, wRiting & aRithmetic)模块8:3R基础(读、写、算)

There’s no question that young children entering kindergarten need the basics of reading, writing, and math. The only question is what’s the best way for them to get it? We all grew up in the classic mode of a teacher at the chalkboard, books, and homework at night. But I would argue that such teaching approaches are long outdated, now replaced with apps, gameplay, and the concept of the flip classroom.毫无疑问,进入幼儿园的幼儿需要阅读、写作和数学的基础知识。唯一的问题是,对他们来说,最好的方法是什么?我们都是在一个老师的经典模式下长大的,在晚上的黑板上,书本上,作业上。但我认为这种教学方法早已过时,现在被应用程序、游戏玩法和翻转课堂的概念所取代。

Pioneered by high school teachers Jonathan Bergman and Aaron Sams in 2007, the flipped classroom reverses the sequence of events from that of the traditional classroom.2007年,由高中教师乔纳森•伯格曼(Jonathan Bergman)和亚伦•萨姆斯(Aaron Sams)开创的翻转课堂颠覆了传统课堂的顺序。

Students view lecture materials, usually in the form of video lectures, as homework prior to coming to class. In-class time is reserved for activities such as interactive discussions or collaborative work, all performed under the guidance of the teacher.学生在上课前,通常以视频授课的形式,将授课材料视为家庭作业。课堂上的时间被预留给活动,如互动讨论或合作工作,所有的活动都在老师的指导下进行。

The benefits are clear:好处很明显:

  1. Students can consume lectures at their own pace, viewing the video again and again until they get the concept, or fast-forwarding if the information is obvious.学生们可以按照自己的节奏来上课,一遍又一遍地看视频,直到他们理解了这个概念,或者如果信息明显,可以快速转发。
  2. The teacher is present while students apply new knowledge. Doing the homework into class time gives teachers insight into which concepts, if any, that their students are struggling with and helps them adjust the class accordingly.当学生应用新知识时,老师在场。在课堂上做作业可以让老师了解学生正在努力学习的概念,并帮助他们相应地调整课堂。
  3. The flipped classroom produces tangible results: 71 percent of teachers who flipped their classes noticed improved grades, and 80 percent reported improved student attitudes as a result.翻转课堂产生了切实的效果:71%的翻转课堂教师注意到成绩提高了,80%的教师反映学生态度因此得到了改善。

Module 9: Creative Expression & Improvisation单元九:创意表达与即兴创作

Every single one of us is creative. It’s human nature to be creative… the thing is that we each might have different ways of expressing our creativity.我们每个人都有创造力。创新是人类的天性…问题是我们每个人都可能有不同的方式来表达我们的创造力。

We must encourage kids to discover and to develop their creative outlets early. In this module, imagine showing kids the many different ways creativity is expressed, from art to engineering to music to math, and then guiding them as they choose the area (or areas) they are most interested in. Critically, teachers (or parents) can then develop unique lessons for each child based on their interests, thanks to open education resources like YouTube and the Khan Academy. If my child is interested in painting and robots, a teacher or AI could scour the web and put together a custom lesson set from videos/articles where the best painters and roboticists in the world share their skills.我们必须鼓励孩子们尽早发现和发展他们的创造性途径。在这个模块中,想象一下向孩子们展示创造力的许多不同表达方式,从艺术到工程,从音乐到数学,然后引导他们选择他们最感兴趣的领域。关键的是,教师(或家长)可以根据他们的兴趣为每个孩子开发独特的课程,这要归功于像YouTube和可汗学院这样的开放教育资源。如果我的孩子对绘画和机器人感兴趣,老师或人工智能可以在网上搜索,并从视频/文章中整理出一套定制的课程,世界上最好的画家和机器人专家在这里分享他们的技能。

Adapting to change is critical for success, especially in our constantly changing world today. Improvisation is a skill that can be learned, and we need to be teaching it early.适应变化是成功的关键,尤其是在当今这个不断变化的世界。即兴创作是一种可以学习的技能,我们需要尽早教它。

In most collegiate “improv” classes, the core of great improvisation is the “Yes, and…” mindset. When acting out a scene, one actor might introduce a new character or idea, completely changing the context of the scene. It’s critical that the other actors in the scene say “Yes, and…” accept the new reality, then add something new of their own.在大多数学院的即兴表演课上,伟大的即兴表演的核心是“是的,而且…”的心态。当表演一个场景时,一个演员可能会引入一个新的角色或想法,完全改变场景的背景。重要的是,场景中的其他演员说“是的,并且……”接受新的现实,然后添加一些自己的新东西。

Imagine playing similar role-play games in elementary schools, where a teacher gives the students a scene/context and constantly changes variables, forcing them to adapt and play.想象一下在小学里玩类似的角色扮演游戏,老师给学生一个场景/环境,不断地改变变量,迫使他们适应和玩耍。

Module 10: Coding10:模块编码

Computer science opens more doors for students than any other discipline in today’s world. Learning even the basics will help students in virtually any career, from architecture to zoology.计算机科学为学生打开的大门比当今世界上任何其他学科都多。从建筑到动物学,学习基础知识几乎可以帮助学生从事任何职业。

Coding is an important tool for computer science, in the way that arithmetic is a tool for doing mathematics and words are a tool for English. Coding creates software, but computer science is a broad field encompassing deep concepts that go well beyond coding.编码是计算机科学的重要工具,就像算术是数学的工具,单词是英语的工具一样。编码创造了软件,但是计算机科学是一个广泛的领域,包含了远远超出编码的深层次概念。

Every 21st century student should also have a chance to learn about algorithms, how to make an app, or how the internet works. Computational thinking allows preschoolers to grasp concepts like algorithms, recursion and heuristics. Even if they don’t understand the terms, they’ll learn the basic concepts.每个21世纪的学生都应该有机会学习算法,如何制作应用程序,或者互联网是如何工作的。计算思维允许学龄前儿童掌握算法、递归和启发等概念。即使他们不懂术语,他们也会学到基本的概念。

There are more than 500,000 open jobs in computing right now, representing the number one source of new wages in the US, and these jobs are projected to grow at twice the rate of all other jobs.目前,计算机行业有50多万个空缺职位,这是美国新增工资的头号来源,预计这些职位的增长速度将是所有其他职位的两倍。

Coding is fun! Beyond the practical reasons for learning how to code, there’s the fact that creating a game or animation can be really fun for kids.编码是有趣的!除了学习如何编写代码的实际原因之外,还有一个事实,那就是创建游戏或动画对孩子来说真的很有趣。

Module 11: Entrepreneurship & Sales模块11:创业与销售

At its core, entrepreneurship is about identifying a problem (an opportunity), developing a vision on how to solve it, and working with a team to turn that vision into reality. I mentioned Elon’s school, Ad Astra: here, again, entrepreneurship is a core discipline where students create and actually sell products and services to each other and the school community.创业精神的核心是发现一个问题(一个机会),制定解决问题的愿景,并与团队合作,将这个愿景变为现实。我提到了埃隆的学校,Ad Astra:在这里,企业家精神是一个核心学科学生创造并实际销售产品和服务给彼此和学校社区。

You could recreate this basic exercise with a group of kids in lots of fun ways to teach them the basic lessons of entrepreneurship.你可以用很多有趣的方式和一群孩子重新做这个基本练习,教他们创业的基本课程。

Related to entrepreneurship is sales. In my opinion, we need to be teaching sales to every child at an early age. Being able to “sell” an idea (again related to storytelling) has been a critical skill in my career, and it is a competency that many people simply never learned.与创业有关的是销售。在我看来,我们需要在每个孩子很小的时候教他们销售。在我的职业生涯中,能够“推销”一个想法(同样与讲故事有关)一直是一项关键技能,许多人根本就没有学会这种能力。

The lemonade stand has been a classic, though somewhat meager, lesson in sales from past generations, where a child sits on a street corner and tries to sell homemade lemonade for $0.50 to people passing by. I’d suggest we step the game up and take a more active approach in gamifying sales, and maybe having the classroom create a Kickstarter, Indiegogo or GoFundMe campaign. The experience of creating a product or service and successfully selling it will create an indelible memory and give students the tools to change the world.柠檬水摊是过去几代人给我们上的一堂经典的销售课,尽管分量有点不足。在这里,一个孩子坐在街角,试图以0.5美元的价格向路过的人出售自制的柠檬水。我建议我们加大游戏的力度,在游戏化销售方面采取更积极的方式,也许让教室创建一个Kickstarter、Indiegogo或GoFundMe活动。创造一种产品或服务并成功销售它的经验将创造一个不可磨灭的记忆,并给学生改变世界的工具。

Module 12: Language模块12:语言

A little over a year ago, I spent a week in China meeting with parents whose focus on kids’ education is extraordinary. One of the areas I found fascinating is how some of the most advanced parents are teaching their kids new languages: through games. On the tablet, the kids are allowed to play games, but only in French. A child’s desire to win fully engages them and drives their learning rapidly.一年多前,我在中国花了一周时间,会见了一些父母,他们对孩子教育的关注是非同寻常的。我发现最吸引人的一个领域是一些最先进的父母如何通过游戏来教他们的孩子学习新的语言。在平板电脑上,孩子们可以玩游戏,但只能用法语。孩子对胜利的渴望使他们全身心投入,并推动他们快速学习。

Beyond games, there’s virtual reality. We know that full immersion is what it takes to become fluent (at least later in life). A semester abroad in France or Italy, and you’ve got a great handle on the language and the culture. But what about for an eight-year-old?除了游戏,还有虚拟现实。我们知道,完全沉浸于其中是成为流利的必要条件(至少在以后的生活中)。在法国或意大利留学一个学期,你就能很好地掌握当地的语言和文化。但是对于一个8岁的孩子来说呢?

Imagine a module where for an hour each day, the children spend their time walking around Italy in a VR world, hanging out with AI-driven game characters who teach them, engage them, and share the culture and the language in the most personalized and compelling fashion possible.想象一下这样一个模块,孩子们每天花一个小时在意大利的虚拟现实世界里散步,和那些以人工智能为主导的游戏角色们在一起,他们教孩子们,让他们参与其中,并以最个性化和最吸引人的方式分享文化和语言。

Exponential Technologies for Our Classrooms我们教室的指数级技术

If you’ve attended Abundance 360 or Singularity University, or followed my blogs, you’ll probably agree with me that the way our children will learn is going to fundamentally transform over the next decade.如果你上过富足360学院或奇点大学,或者关注过我的博客,你可能会同意我的观点,即我们孩子的学习方式将在未来十年发生根本性的转变。

Here’s an overview of the top five technologies that will reshape the future of education:以下是重塑教育未来的五大技术:

Tech 1: Virtual Reality (VR) can make learning truly immersive. Research has shown that we remember 20 percent of what we hear, 30 percent of what we see, and up to 90 percent of what we do or simulate. Virtual reality yields the latter scenario impeccably. VR enables students to simulate flying through the bloodstream while learning about different cells they encounter, or travel to Mars to inspect the surface for life.技术1:虚拟现实(VR)可以让学习真正沉浸其中。研究表明,我们能记住20%的我们听到的,30%的我们看到的,90%的我们做的或模仿的。虚拟现实无可挑剔地产生了后一种情况。VR可以让学生模拟在血液中飞行,同时了解他们遇到的不同细胞,或者到火星上去寻找生命。

To make this a reality, Google Cardboard just launched its Pioneer Expeditions product. Under this program, thousands of schools around the world have gotten a kit containing everything a teacher needs to take his or her class on a virtual trip. While data on VR use in K-12 schools and colleges have yet to be gathered, the steady growth of the market is reflected in the surge of companies (including zSpace, Alchemy VR and Immersive VR Education) solely dedicated to providing schools with packaged education curriculum and content.为了实现这一目标,谷歌Cardboard推出了它的先锋探险产品。在这个项目下,世界上成千上万的学校已经得到了一个工具包,里面包含了老师在虚拟旅行中所需要的一切。虽然K-12学校和学院的VR使用数据尚未收集,但市场的稳步增长反映在专门为学校提供打包教育课程和内容的公司(包括zSpace、Alchemy VR和Immersive VR Education)的激增。

Add to VR a related technology called augmented reality (AR), and experiential education really comes alive. Imagine wearing an AR headset that is able to superimpose educational lessons on top of real-world experiences. Interested in botany? As you walk through a garden, the AR headset superimposes the name and details of every plant you see.在VR中加入一种叫做增强现实(AR)的相关技术,体验式教育就真正开始了。想象一下,你戴着一个AR耳机,它可以将教育课程叠加在现实世界的经验之上。对植物学感兴趣吗?当你穿过花园时,AR耳机会叠加你看到的每一种植物的名称和细节。

Tech 2: 3D Printing is allowing students to bring their ideas to life. Never mind the computer on every desktop (or a tablet for every student), that’s a given. In the near future, teachers and students will want or have a 3D printer on the desk to help them learn core science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) principles. Bre Pettis, of MakerBot Industries, in a grand but practical vision, sees a 3D printer on every school desk in America. “Imagine if you had a 3D printer instead of a LEGO set when you were a kid; what would life be like now?” asks Mr. Pettis. You could print your own mini-figures, your own blocks, and you could iterate on new designs as quickly as your imagination would allow. MakerBots are now in over 5,000 K-12 schools across the US.技术2:3D打印允许学生将他们的想法变成现实。不用管每个桌面(或者每个学生都有一台平板电脑)上的电脑,这是理所当然的。在不久的将来,老师和学生们会想要一台3D打印机放在桌子上,帮助他们学习核心科学、技术、工程和数学(STEM)原理。MakerBot Industries公司的Bre Pettis从一个宏大而实际的角度来看,在美国每个学校的课桌上都有一台3D打印机。“想象一下,如果你小时候有一台3D打印机,而不是乐高积木;现在的生活是什么样的?佩蒂斯先生问道。你可以打印你自己的小图形,你自己的积木,你可以迭代新的设计,只要你的想象力允许。现在,MakerBots已经在全美5000多所中小学中投入使用。

Taking this one step further, you could imagine having a 3D file for most entries in Wikipedia, allowing you to print out and study an object you can only read about or visualize in VR.更进一步,你可以想象维基百科的大部分条目都有一个3D文件,这样你就可以打印并研究一个你只能在VR中看到或看到的物体。

Tech 3: Sensors & Networks. An explosion of sensors and networks are going to connect everyone at gigabit speeds, making access to rich video available at all times. At the same time, sensors continue to miniaturize and reduce in power, becoming embedded in everything. One benefit will be the connection of sensor data with machine learning and AI (below), such that knowledge of a child’s attention drifting, or confusion, can be easily measured and communicated. The result would be a representation of the information through an alternate modality or at a different speed.技术3:传感器和网络。传感器和网络的爆炸将以千兆的速度将每个人连接起来,使人们可以随时访问丰富的视频。与此同时,传感器继续小型化和降低功率,成为嵌入一切。其中一个好处是将传感器数据与机器学习和人工智能(如下图所示)连接起来,这样孩子的注意力漂移或混淆的知识就可以很容易地测量和交流。其结果将是通过另一种方式或以不同的速度表示信息。

Tech 4: Machine Learning is making learning adaptive and personalized. No two students are identical—they have different modes of learning (by reading, seeing, hearing, doing), come from different educational backgrounds, and have different intellectual capabilities and attention spans. Advances in machine learning and the surging adaptive learning movement are seeking to solve this problem. Companies like Knewton and Dreambox have over 15 million students on their respective adaptive learning platforms. Soon, every education application will be adaptive, learning how to personalize the lesson for a specific student. There will be adaptive quizzing apps, flashcard apps, textbook apps, simulation apps and many more.技术4:机器学习使学习适应和个性化。没有两个学生是相同的——他们有不同的学习模式(通过阅读、看、听、做),来自不同的教育背景,有不同的智力和注意力跨度。机器学习的进步和汹涌澎湃的适应性学习运动正在寻求解决这个问题。Knewton和Dreambox等公司在各自的自适应学习平台上拥有超过1500万名学生。很快,每个教育应用程序都将是适应性的,学习如何为特定的学生个性化课程。将会有适应性测验应用程序、抽认卡应用程序、教科书应用程序、模拟应用程序等等。

Tech 5: Artificial Intelligence or “An AI Teaching Companion. Neil Stephenson’s book The Diamond Age presents a fascinating piece of educational technology called “A Young Lady’s Illustrated Primer.”技术5:人工智能或“人工智能教学伴侣”。尼尔·斯蒂芬森(Neil Stephenson)的《钻石时代》(The Diamond Age)一书中介绍了一项引人入胜的教育技术,名为《一位年轻女士的插图入门》(a Young Lady 's Illustrated Primer)。

As described by Beat Schwendimann, “The primer is an interactive book that can answer a learner’s questions (spoken in natural language), teach through allegories that incorporate elements of the learner’s environment, and presents contextual just-in-time information.正如Beat Schwendimann所描述的,“初级读本是一本互动书,可以回答学习者的问题(用自然语言说出来的),通过包含学习者环境元素的寓言进行教学,并呈现上下文即时信息。”

“The primer includes sensors that monitor the learner’s actions and provide feedback. The learner is in a cognitive apprenticeship with the book: The primer models a certain skill (through allegorical fairy tale characters), which the learner then imitates in real life.“入门级包括传感器,监测学习者的行动和提供反馈。学习者正处于一种认知学徒阶段:初级读本(通过寓言式的童话人物)模仿一种技能,然后在现实生活中模仿。

“The primer follows a learning progression with increasingly more complex tasks. The educational goals of the primer are humanist: To support the learner to become a strong and independently thinking person.”《入门》讲述的是一个学习过程,任务越来越复杂。引物的教育目标是人文主义的:支持学习者成为一个坚强独立思考的人。

The primer, an individualized AI teaching companion is the result of technological convergence and is beautifully described by YouTuber CGP Grey in his video: Digital Aristotle: Thoughts on the Future of Education.引子,一个个性化的AI教学伴侣是技术融合的结果,YouTuber CGP Grey在他的视频《数字亚里士多德:对教育未来的思考》中完美地描述了这一点。

Your AI companion will have unlimited access to information on the cloud and will deliver it at the optimal speed to each student in an engaging, fun way. This AI will demonetize and democratize education, be available to everyone for free (just like Google), and offering the best education to the wealthiest and poorest children on the planet equally.你的人工智能伙伴将可以无限制地访问云上的信息,并以一种吸引人的、有趣的方式以最佳的速度将信息传递给每个学生。这一人工智能将使教育废止并民主化,向所有人免费提供(就像谷歌一样),并向地球上最富有和最贫穷的儿童提供最好的教育。

This AI companion is not a tutor who spouts facts, figures and answers, but a player on the side of the student, there to help him or her learn, and in so doing, learn how to learn better. The AI is always alert, watching for signs of frustration and boredom that may precede quitting, for signs of curiosity or interest that tend to indicate active exploration, and for signs of enjoyment and mastery, which might indicate a successful learning experience.这个人工智能伙伴不是一个喋喋不休的事实、数字和答案的导师,而是站在学生一边的玩家,帮助他或她学习,这样做,学习如何更好地学习。人工智能总是保持警惕,它会注意到在放弃之前可能出现的挫败感和厌倦感,注意到好奇或兴趣的迹象,这往往意味着积极的探索,注意到享受和掌握的迹象,这可能意味着成功的学习经验。

Ultimately, we’re heading towards a vastly more educated world. We are truly living during the most exciting time to be alive.最终,我们将走向一个受教育程度更高的世界。我们真正生活在最激动人心的时刻。

Mindsets for the 21st Century21世纪的心态

Finally, it’s important for me to discuss mindsets. How we think about the future colors how we learn and what we do. I’ve written extensively about the importance of an abundance and exponential mindset for entrepreneurs and CEOs. I also think that attention to mindset in our elementary schools, when a child is shaping the mental “operating system” for the rest of their life, is even more important.最后,讨论心态对我来说很重要。我们如何看待未来,我们如何学习,我们做什么。我写过很多关于企业家和首席执行官拥有丰富和指数型思维模式的重要性的文章。我还认为,在我们的小学里,当孩子们在他们的余生中塑造着心智的“操作系统”时,对心态的关注就显得更加重要。

As such, I would recommend that a school adopt a set of principles that teach and promote a number of mindsets in the fabric of their programs.因此,我建议一所学校采用一套原则,在他们的课程结构中教授和促进一些心态。

Many “mindsets” are important to promote. Here are a couple to consider:许多“思维定势”很重要。以下是一些需要考虑的问题:

Nurturing Optimism & An Abundance Mindset:培养乐观主义和富足心态:

We live in a competitive world, and kids experience a significant amount of pressure to perform. When they fall short, they feel deflated. We all fail at times; that’s part of life. If we want to raise “can-do” kids who can work through failure and come out stronger for it, it’s wise to nurture optimism. Optimistic kids are more willing to take healthy risks, are better problem-solvers, and experience positive relationships. You can nurture optimism in your school by starting each day by focusing on gratitude (what each child is grateful for), or a “positive focus” in which each student takes 30 seconds to talk about what they are most excited about, or what recent event was positively impactful to them. (NOTE: I start every meeting inside my Strike Force team with a positive focus.)我们生活在一个竞争激烈的世界里,孩子们承受着巨大的表现压力。当他们达不到要求时,他们会感到泄气。我们都有失败的时候;这是生活的一部分。如果我们想要培养那些能够克服失败并变得更坚强的“能干”孩子,那么培养乐观主义是明智的。乐观的孩子更愿意承担健康的风险,是更好的问题解决者,体验积极的人际关系。你可以从每天开始关注感恩(每个孩子都感激什么),或者“积极关注”,让每个学生花30秒时间谈论他们最兴奋的事情,或者最近发生的事情对他们有积极的影响。(注意:我在我的突击队里以一个积极的焦点开始每一次会议。)

Finally, helping students understand (through data and graphs) that the world is in fact getting better (see my first book: Abundance: The Future is Better Than You Think) will help them counter the continuous flow of negative news flowing through our news media.最后,帮助学生理解(通过数据和图表)世界实际上正在变得更好(参见我的第一本书《富足:未来比你想象的更好》)将帮助他们对抗通过我们的新闻媒体源源不断的负面新闻。

When kids feel confident in their abilities and excited about the world, they are willing to work harder and be more creative.当孩子们对自己的能力感到自信,对世界感到兴奋时,他们愿意更加努力地工作,变得更有创造力。

Tolerance for Failure:容忍失败:

Tolerating failure is a difficult lesson to learn and a difficult lesson to teach. But it is critically important to succeeding in life.容忍失败是一个很难学的教训,也是一个很难教的教训。但它对于人生的成功至关重要。

Astro Teller, who runs Google’s innovation branch “X,” talks a lot about encouraging failure. At X, they regularly try to “kill” their ideas. If they are successful in killing an idea, and thus “failing,” they save lots of time, money and resources. The ideas they can’t kill survive and develop into billion-dollar businesses. The key is that each time an idea is killed, Astro rewards the team, literally, with cash bonuses. Their failure is celebrated and they become a hero.阿斯特罗·特勒(Astro Teller)是谷歌创新部门“X”的负责人,他大谈鼓励失败。在X,他们经常试图“扼杀”自己的想法。如果他们成功地扼杀了一个想法,从而“失败”,他们就能节省大量的时间、金钱和资源。他们无法扼杀的创意得以存活,并发展成为价值数十亿美元的企业。关键是每当一个想法被扼杀,Astro就会用现金奖励团队。他们的失败受到了赞扬,他们成了英雄。

This should be reproduced in the classroom: kids should try to be critical of their best ideas (learn critical thinking), then they should be celebrated for ‘successfully failing,’ perhaps with cake, balloons, confetti, and lots of Silly String.这应该在课堂上重现:孩子们应该试着批评他们最好的想法(学习批判性思维),然后他们应该为“成功失败”而庆祝,也许用蛋糕、气球、五彩纸屑和许多愚蠢的绳子。

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